Intermountain Research Records

Identifier: 96-20

Scope and Contents

The Intermountain Research Records represents the manuscript portion of Intermountain Research's library and the products of IMR's contracts with government and private agencies. IMR also donated to Special Collections, their extensive holdings of unpublished manuscripts authored by other individuals and firms, published volumes, and published journals. The unpublished manuscripts are in a quasi-gray area between published and unpublished status and are being catalogued as monographs for the Special Collections' and general library stacks, as are the published books and journals. Together with extensive reference materials retained by IMR, this represents one of the most comprehensive libraries about the Great Basin and western United States, particularly in regard to the archaeology, ethnography, history, and geology of the Great Basin and Nevada. The Special Collections Department is very grateful to have been selected by IMR to receive their collection.

The IMR materials which are part of this manuscript collection include project report manuscripts, research notes, field and laboratory notes and files, photographs, and annotated maps. The bulk of the collection directly relates to projects undertaken by IMR from 1979-1995 and includes project files, archaeological site reports, and final project reports. Supporting material for the work of IMR includes area reports and site forms generated by firms other than IMR and author reprint files, which contain both published and unpublished articles and professional papers related to the Great Basin.

The collection was very well organized when it arrived in the Special Collections Department and the original arrangement has been retained. IMR graciously provided the department with explanations of their filing systems; a numerical list of IMR projects, including a supplement for the Tosawihi project; and a copy of their index to the author reprint series. The latter has been upgraded to reflect the series as it actually came to Special Collections.

It is anticipated that the collection will be augmented in the future with additions of project files (IMR retained active, current files) and an extensive series of photographs.


  • 1979-1995


Conditions Governing Access

Parts of the collection are restricted for proprietary reasons or to protect the integrity of archaeological sites; see each series description for access status.

Administrative History

Intermountain Research (IMR) is a cultural resources research and management firm providing consulting services to the private sector and to government agencies dealing with cultural resources, whether as agency missions or in fulfillment of environmental considerations. IMR's projects include studies ranging in scope from small, development-related reconnaissances to evaluative surveys, test excavations, and large-scale data recovery staged over entire drainage basins. The firm is well-schooled in the production of regional overviews, assessments of National Register significance, impact analyses, mitigation strategies, and research design at all levels of scope and intensity. Its regional emphasis is especially strong in the Great Basin where multi-year investigations have focused on the archaeology of wetland adaptations, major quarry locales, and regional subsistence/settlement systems of the prehistoric period, and of historical period themes of the western United States. IMR has also undertaken investigations in north-central China, supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation.

Intermountain Research was organized in 1979, incorporated in the State of Nevada in 1980, and is based in Silver City. The firm is owned by Robert G. Elston, director of research, and Cashion Callaway, administrative coordinator. Staff expertise extends to all aspects of archaeological inquiry. Professional staff and research associates represent nationally recognized expertise in the fields of historic and prehistoric archaeology, cultural anthropology, ethnology, history, and Quaternary geology. Curation agreements are in effect with the Nevada State Museum; University of Nevada, Reno, Museum of Anthropology; and Oregon State Museum in Eugene, Oregon, for artifacts collected in the field.

[Company and personnel information supplied by Cashion Callaway, Intermountain Research.]

Robert Elston received his BA in Anthropology from San Francisco State University and an MA and Ph.D. degrees in Anthropology from Washington State University.

Elston has 30 years of experience in the prehistory of the Great Basin and desert west. From 1980-1985 he served as Anthropologist to the College of Agriculture at the University of Nevada, Reno, and directed the Archaeological Survey of the Anthropology Department of the University. He was also curator of the Department Museum. Currently he is adjunct research professor in the department.

Dr. Elston has served as series editor of the Nevada Archaeological Survey Reporter and has published numerous papers, monographs, and reports on Great Basin prehistory. He is certified by the Society of Professional Archaeologists in field, collections, and archival research, and in archaeological administration.

Elston pursues an interdisciplinary approach to archaeology, encompassing geomorphology, geochronology, and paleoecology. He is a specialist in lithic technology interested in economic models of variability among stone tools. He has served as principal investigator on archaeological projects of every size and degree of complexity in Nevada, California, and Oregon; he is also pursuing independent research in the Peoples Republic of China.

Cashion Callaway, company president, has managed more than 500 projects for IMR, each of which was concluded successfully within contracted schedules and budgets. She is fully aware of the ways in which federal laws and regulations, contract administration, and accounting procedures must be articulated in cultural resources research and management projects. Her management style incorporates skills in planning, coordination, and communication, with particular emphasis on deadline awareness and closure consciousness.

Callaway's managerial skills are augmented by technical experience with the Nevada State Museum; the Archaeological Survey, University of Nevada, Reno; and the California Department of Parks and Recreation, Division of Archaeology.


150 Cubic Feet (136 boxes)

Language of Materials



Intermountain Research (IMR) is a cultural resources research and management firm providing consulting services to the private sector and to government agencies dealing with cultural resources, whether as agency missions or in fulfillment of environmental considerations. Manuscripts and projects of IMR's contracts with government and private agencies documenting the archaeology, ethnography, history, and geology of Nevada and the Great Basin portion of the western U.S. Included are archaeological project reports, research notes, field and lab reports and files, photos, area reports, site forms, annotated maps, and published and unpublished articles and professional papers related to archaeology of Nevada and the Great Basin (1979-1995).


Arranged into the following series: 1) Author Reprints; 2) Area Reports and Site Forms; 3) IMR Project Files; 4) IMR Site Files; 5) Final Project Reports; 6) Maps

Immediate Source of Acquisition

Donated by Intermountain Research via Robert G. Elston and Cashion Callaway in June 1996.

Existence and Location of Originals

94-113 TOSAWIHI PROJECT FILES. The following inventory incorporates the original container list created by IMR. Several boxes of Tosawihi materials were missing when received by Special Collections but they have been referenced below in the hope that they will be located and transferred in the future.

Box 94 [Formerly IMR Box A-3] Boxes 95-96 [Formerly IMF Box A-6] Box 96 [IMR Box 1] Box 97 [IMR Box 1, con’t.] Box 98 [IMR Box, 1 con’t.] Box 98 [IMF Box 6] Box 99 [IMF Box 6, con’t.] Box 100 [IMR Box 7, Proj. 638, con’t.] Box 101 [IMR Box 7, Proj. 638 con’t.] Box 102 [IMR Box8, Proj. 638, con’t.] Box 103 [IMR Box 8, Proj. 638, con’t.] Box 104 [IMR Box 9: “Bloomer’s Stuff”] Box 105 [IMR Box 10: Proj. 639] Box 106 [IMR Box 10 Proj. 639, con’t.] Box 107 [IMR Box 10 Proj. 639, con’t.] Box 108 [IMR , Box 12, M. Leach Files, Projs. 638-702] Box 109 [IMR Box 12, M. Leach Files, con’t.] Box 110 [IMR Box 13. Leach Files, con’t.] Box 111 [IMR Box 15] Box 112 [IMR Box, 16, con’t.] Box 113 [IMR Box 18, con’t.]

Separated Materials

Photographs transferred to the Special Collections Department photo archive as collection number UNRS-P1997-57.

Guide to the Records of Intermountain Research
Susan Searcy
July 17, 1996
Description rules
Describing Archives: A Content Standard
Language of description
Script of description

Repository Details

Part of the University of Nevada, Reno. Special Collections Department Repository

Mathewson-IGT Knowledge Center
1664 N. Virginia St.
Reno Nevada 89557-0322 USA
775-682-5724 (Fax)